Adrianople, Battle of, August 9, 378 A.D., a crushing defeat of the Roman imperial army under Emperor Valens by hordes of Visigoths led by Fritigern, aided by Ostrogoths and members of other barbarian tribes. Valens and two-thirds of his army, about 40,000 men, were killed when trapped in a double envelopment. The Battle of Adrianople was the first barbarian victory over the Romans within the empire. It was a turning point in the history of warfare, establishing a dominance of cavalry that was to last 1,000 years.
Rome and the Roman Empire, the most powerful state of the ancient world. It grew from an Italian village to a city-state and into an organization that ruled the shores of the Mediterranean and much of western Europe.
Caesar, a title that came from the name of a Roman family. The first important member of the family was the soldier and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar.