Friedland, Battle of, June 14, 1807, a crucial engagement of the Napoleonic Wars. It was fought near the city of Friedland (now Pravdinsk) in the province of Königsberg, East Prussia. Here the French armies of Napoleon I defeated Russian troops under Count Bennigsen. The defeat resulted in Russia's signing the humiliating treaty of Tilsit, by which France gained East Prussia.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
The history of Europe is the story of many different peoples and cultures. Some peoples lagged behind, while others surged far ahead in the development of social, intellectual, and political institutions and ideas.