Friedland, Battle of, June 14, 1807, a crucial engagement of the Napoleonic Wars. It was fought near the city of Friedland (now Pravdinsk) in the province of Königsberg, East Prussia. Here the French armies of Napoleon I defeated Russian troops under Count Bennigsen. The defeat resulted in Russia's signing the humiliating treaty of Tilsit, by which France gained East Prussia.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
Cid, El , the popular name of Rodrigo (or Ruy) Diaz de Bivar (1040 - 1099), a Spanish national hero.