Carbonari, a secret revolutionary brotherhood that originated in Italy about 1811. The group named itself for the charcoal burners of the mountain area where it first met. Formed to oppose Napoleon, the brotherhood was later dedicated to the overthrow of the foreign rulers who had been returned to their Italian thrones after the fall of Napoleon. Members helped foment revolts in Naples in 1820 and in Piedmont in 1821. Each revolt was successful until foreign troops were sent to the monarch's support. In 1831 the Carbonari was succeeded by Giuseppe Mazzini's Young Italy movement.

During the 1820's brotherhoods, some similar to and some loosely connected with the Carbonari, arose throughout Europe in countries under foreign or autocratic rule, such as Greece, Poland, and France.

In 1820, in Spain, a carbonarist brotherhood of military officers led a successful revolt. It set the pattern for many later revolts of the same type, particularly in Latin America. In Russia in 1825 a similar officers' brotherhood failed in its “Decembrist Revolt” to overthrow the czar.