After nearly a year and a half of conferences among the leading Allied powers, peace treaties were signed in Paris in 1947 with Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Finland. In addition to making territorial concessions, the former Axis nations had to pay reparations and limit the size and strength of their armed forces. Most of the reparations were to be made to the Soviet Union, but Ethiopia, Greece, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Albania were also to get a share.
In 1951 Japan signed a treaty of peace with 48 nations, not including the Soviet Union. Japan signed a peace treaty with India and Nationalist China in 1952 and with the Soviet Union in 1956. Austria regained independence under a treaty with the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union in 1955.
The Soviets and the Western powers failed to agree on the terms of a peace treaty with Germany. In 1949 the combined occupation zones of the United States, Great Britain, and France became the Federal Republic of Germany. The republic gained independence in 1955. The Soviet Union proclaimed the independence of East Germany in 1954, but the country remained under Soviet domination until 1990, when Germany was reunited.