Diana, in Roman mythology, the virgin goddess of hunting, of fields and forests, and of fertility and childbirth. She was also the moon goddess; in this identity, however, she was called Luna. In ancient times there was a famous shrine of Diana in a grove at Aricia (Ariccia), near Rome. Diana is frequently portrayed driving a chariot or carrying a bow and quiver of arrows.

The Greeks called the goddess Artemis or Cynthia and identified her as the sister of Apollo. As the moon goddess she was called Selene. Artemis was attended by a band of nymphs. Actaeon, grandson of King Cadmus of Thebes, while hunting one day surprised the group as they were bathing in a forest pool. Enraged, Artemis changed Actaeon into a stag, and he was torn to pieces by his hounds. Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese painted depictions of this incident.

The Temple of ArtemisThe Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was one of the largest temples built by the Greeks. It was famous for its decoration and extensive use of marble.

The temple of Diana, or Artemis, at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. ( See Ephesus. )