Aguinaldo, Emilio (1869–1964), a Filipino patriot. In 1896 he led a revolt against Spain; he won many notable victories but when faced with enemy reinforcements had to retreat into the mountains. In January, 1898, he agreed to go into exile on the promise of a large subsidy. When the Spanish-American War broke out a few months later, Aguinaldo returned home and helped lead Filipino guerrillas against the Spanish.
Aguinaldo soon turned against the United States because his homeland was not granted immediate independence, and proclaimed an independent Philippine republic. He conducted a skillful guerrilla campaign until he was captured by Colonel Frederick Funston in 1901. He then took an oath of allegiance to the United States.
Aguinaldo was born near Manila and was educated there at the University of Santo Tomás. As a young man he became mayor of Cavite Viejo. After the failure of his insurrection he lived mostly in retirement from public life, but advocated good relations with the United States. In 1935 he ran for the presidency of the newly established Commonwealth of the Philippines, but lost to Manuel Quezon. During World War II as a private citizen Aguinaldo made radio broadcasts in support of the Japanese occupation government. He was arrested in 1945 but was later released. In A Second Look at America (1957) he states that he was under compulsion when he cooperated with the Japanese.