Malcolm III, surnamed Canmore (“Big-head”) (?-1093), king of Scotland. He was a child in 1040 when his father, King Duncan I, was slain by Macbeth, who usurped the throne. In 1057 Malcolm succeeded in defeating Macbeth, killed him, and ascended the throne. For a number of years he was free to devote his energies to the consolidation of his kingdom, England being ruled by the peaceful Edward the Confessor.

After 1066 Malcolm's reign was marked by warfare against England's Norman conquerors. His first wife having died, he was married in 1069 to Margaret, sister of Edgar the Atheling who was Saxon claimant to the throne. He twice invaded England in an attempt to help Edgar's cause. In 1093 he made a third invasion and was ambushed and slain along with his son Edward. Of his remaining five sons, Duncan, Edgar, Alexander, and David became kings of Scotland.