Tuchman, Barbara W. (Wertheim) (1912–1989), a United States author and historian. Although lacking a graduate degree and an academic position, she became a best-selling, prize-winning historian. She was noted for her gripping narratives of men at war and nations on the brink of war. The Guns of August (1962) and Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911–45 (1971) won Pulitzer Prizes.

Barbara Wertheim was born in New York City, into a family prominent in finance and public service. She graduated from Radcliffe College in 1933 and became a journalist, often working abroad. In 1940 she married Lester R. Tuchman, a physician. After raising three children, she resumed her writing career.

Her other books include: The Zimmerman Telegram (1958); The Proud Tower (1966); A Distant Mirror (1978); and The First Salute (1988).