Korean War, or Korean Conflict, 195053, a war fought between the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and United Nations forces on the one hand and the Communist-dominated Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Communist China on the other. The war began June 25, 1950, with a North Korean invasion of South Korea. It ended with an armistice signed July 27, 1953, neither side having achieved a decisive military victory.Fighting in Seoul. Marines advance cautiously through South Korea's capital city in the 1950 campaign that routed the North Koreans.
In a broad sense, the Korean War resulted in a United Nations victory because the aim of forcing back the aggressors was achieved. However, the war ended, as it began, with Korea divided, and the issues behind the war were not resolved.
The Korean War was the first war in which troops of an international bodythe United Nationsfought. Most of the UN forces were provided by the United States, but 20 other UN countries also supplied troops, naval forces, air support, or medical aid. At the time the war was being fought it was officially referred to in the United States as a conflict because there was no declaration of war by Congress. President Truman referred to it as a police action.
The war was fought largely with the weapons of World War II. (No nuclear weapons were used, however). Its tactics, after the initial stages, were somewhat like those of World War I. New weapons were tested only in the air, where jet fighters fought each other. Communist charges that the United States used germ warfare were false.
|Highlights of the Korean War|
|June 25||North Korean Communist troops invaded South Korea. The UN demanded that North Korea halt the action.|
|June 27||President Truman ordered U.S. air and naval forces to help defend South Korea. The UN asked member nations to aid South Korea.|
|June 30||Truman ordered U.S. ground troops to South Korea.|
|Sept. 8||Allied troops stopped the deepest Communist advance, at the Pusan Perimeter in southeastern South Korea.|
|Sept. 15||Allied troops landed behind the enemy lines at Inchon.|
|Sept. 26||General MacArthur, commander of UN forces, announced the capture of Seoul, the South Korean capital.|
|Oct. 19||The Allies captured Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.|
|Oct. 25||China entered the war on the side of North Korea.|
|Nov. 26||The Allies began to retreat after an attack by the Chinese.|
|Jan. 4||The Communists occupied Seoul.|
|March 14||The Allies reoccupied Seoul after ending their retreat.|
|April 11||Truman removed MacArthur and replaced him with General Ridgway.|
|July 10||Truce talks began, but fighting continued.|
|April 28||Communist negotiators rejected a proposal for voluntary repatriation of prisoners.|
|Oct. 8||The truce talks were broken off.|
|March 28||The Communists accepted a UN proposal to exchange sick and wounded prisoners.|
|April 26||The truce talks were resumed.|
|July 27||An armistice agreement was signed, and the fighting ended.|