Cairo Conferences, two series of meetings of Allied leaders at Cairo, Egypt, during World War II. The first conference was held November 22-26, 1943; the second, December 4-6, 1943.
The November conference was attended by President Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Churchill of Great Britain, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of China. Most of the discussions centered on three issues:
- Japan would be deprived of all territory seized from China and of all Pacific islands acquired since 1914. Taiwan, Manchuria, and the Pescadores would be restored to China. Korea would become independent. The Declaration of Cairo, the most important political result of the conference, stated these agreements.
- How to relieve South China from military and economic pressure from Japanese-occupied Burma. No decision was reached.
- Plans for the cross-channel invasion of Europe. No definite plans were made, but the British advised delaying the operation in favor of a campaign in the Aegean Sea.
From Cairo, Roosevelt and Churchill went to Iran for the Tehran Conference with Joseph Stalin of Russia. Roosevelt and Churchill then returned to Egypt for the second Cairo Conference. Ismet Inönü, president of Turkey, and Sergei A. Vinogradoff, Soviet ambassador to Turkey, attended the meetings, but Chiang Kai-shek was not present. Major attention was directed to the plan for invading Europe. It was at this conference that Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed to command the invasion.