Kalmar, Union of 1397, an act uniting the crowns of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under Eric of Pomerania and his descendants. Queen Margaret of Denmark, Eric's great-aunt and queen of all three countries, had the union created by a congress of Scandinavian nobles and clergy at Kalmar, Sweden. The Danes dominated the union, and Sweden was often in revolt until 1523, when it became permanently independent. Norway and Denmark remained united until 1814, when Norway was ceded to Sweden.
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.