Lidice (Czech:), a former village in what is now the Czech Republic, 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Prague. Lidice, which had a population of about 500, was destroyed on June 10, 1942, by the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police, to avenge the killing of Reinhard Heydrich, a German official. The Gestapo claimed that the people of Lidice had sheltered Heydrich's assassins. The men and boys were killed, and most of the women and girls were sent to concentration camps.

Several Nazis were hanged after the war for participation in the massacre. The site of Lidice was made a national memorial and a new town by that name was built nearby. A number of towns and villages in other countries renamed themselves Lidice in sympathy for the townspeople.