Hess, Rudolf (1894–1987), a German Nazi leader. He was Adolf Hitler's personal secretary and deputy leader of the Nazi party. In 1941 Hess, without informing other Nazi leaders, parachuted into Scotland. He had hoped to meet with British leaders in order to convince them to cease hostilities against Germany and join in an invasion of the Soviet Union. When Hitler learned of Hess's flight, he denounced him as “insane.” He was interrogated by the British and imprisoned.

Hess was born in Alexandria, Egypt. During World War I he served in the German army. In 1933 he became a cabinet minister without portfolio. Hitler named Hess second in line of succession, following Hermann Goering, in 1939. At the Nuremberg Trials during 1945–46, Hess was convicted as a war criminal and sentenced to imprisonment for life. He committed suicide at Spandau prison in Berlin.