Xenophanes, (570 B.C.-480? B.C.), a Greek philosopher and poet. He was born in the region of Ionia in Asia Minor, lived as a wandering poet, and then settled in Elea in southern Italy. According to tradition, he founded a school of philosophy, the Eleatic school, which flourished in the fifth century B.C. under Parmenides and Zeno of Elea. However, Xenophanes was probably not directly connected with the Eleatic school.

Xenophanes criticized the Greek poets for portraying the gods as immoral. He scorned the practice of creating gods in the image of humans, and argued that there was one ideal motionless god who was in no way like a human or any other finite being. This god, he believed, "shook all things by the power of his thought." Xenophanes distinguished between knowledge and opinion. He claimed that men cannot have absolute knowledge, but only opinion.