Confederate States of America, often called The Confederacy, the 11 Southern states that declared their secession from the Union at the beginning of the Civil War. The Confederate States survived until after the surrender of General Robert E. Lee and General Joseph E. Johnston in April, 1865.

Seven states—South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas—formed the Confederacy at a meeting in Montgomery, Alabama, February 4–9, 1861. When President Lincoln called for troops after the firing on Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861), Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina also joined the Confederacy. The western part of Virginia remained loyal to the Union and in 1863 became a new state, West Virginia.

The proslavery "border" states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede. However, Confederate governments-in-exile were established for Missouri and Kentucky, which accounts for the 13 stars on the Confederate flag.

The Confederate States covered about 700,000 square miles (1,800,000 km 2), a quarter of the total area of the United States and territories before secession. The population of the South was about 9,000,000, which included some 3,500,000 slaves, as compared to a population of almost 23,000,000 in the Union.