Kiowa Indians, a North American Indian tribe. The Kiowa language is closely related to the languages spoken by tribes of the Tanoan language family. The Kiowas were nomadic hunters. They ranged from the head of the Missouri River to the Black Hills until driven southward by the Arapaho, Cheyennes, and Sioux to the region near the Arkansas River in the early 19th century. At that time, they numbered about 2,000.
The Kiowas were a warlike people, opposed to the coming of white settlers. They formed an alliance with the Comanches in the late 18th century, and for decades the two tribes made raids into Texas and Mexico. The Kiowas accepted a reservation in southwestern Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in 1868, but rebelled in the Red River War of 1874–75. They were defeated in several battles along the Red River on the Llano Estacado (Staked Plain) in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico by troops led by Colonels Nelson A. Miles and Ranald S. Mackenzie, and many of their leaders were sent to Florida for confinement. There are now about 8,600 Kiowas, living mainly in southwestern Oklahoma.
The Kiowa-Apache is a small tribe of the Athapascan language family, linguistically related to the Apaches. The Kiowa-Apaches began living among the Kiowas some time before the mid-19th century, and moved with them to the southern Plains.